West Indian varieties Edit

Florida avocados were at first mainly of the summer fruiting West Indian race, but these had to compete commercially with similar fruits imported from Cuba, and growers sought other cultivars maturing at a later season. This led to the development of West Indian X Guatemalan hybrids. The cessation of trade with Cuba in the early 1960s brought about a shift back to summer cultivars in new groves to fill the gap. The majority of the avocados grown in the West Indies, Bahamas and Bermuda and the tropics of the Old World are still of the West Indian race. The skin is leathery, pliable, non-granular, and the flesh low in oil. The leaves are not aromatic. The following are the most prominent of early and more recent West Indian cultivars which have played an important role in the development of the avocado industry in Florida and elsewhere. New selections appear from time to time that may have special adaptability to certain locales or conditions.

Butler (a USDA selection in Florida; fruited in 1909, propagated from 1914 to 1918) pear shaped; medium-large; skin smooth; seed of medium size, tight in the cavity. Season: Aug.-Sept. No longer grown in Florida. Cultivated in Puerto Rico.

Fuchs ('Fuchsia') (seed of unknown origin planted in Homestead, Florida, in 1910; propagated commercially in 1926); pear shaped to oblong, sometimes with a neck; of medium size; skin smooth; flesh pale greenish-yellow; 4 to 6% oil; seed loose. Season: early June-Aug.; a poor shipper. Tree not very productive in Florida; no longer popular in commercial groves.

Maoz (a seedling selected from a plot near Maoz, Israel); pear-shaped; of medium size; skin rough, leathery, violet-purple when ripe; flesh sweetish and very low in oil. Season: medium-late (Oct.). Tree is an alternate bearer but is fairly small, highly salt-tolerant; used in Israel as rootstock on either saline or calcareous soils.

Pollock (originated in Miami before 1896; commercially propagated in 1901); oblong to pear shaped; very large, up to 5 lbs (2.27 kg); skin smooth; flesh green near skin, contains 3 to 5% oil; seed large, frequently loose in cavity. Season: early July to Aug. or Oct. Shy-bearing and too large but of superior quality.

Ruchle (a seedling of Waldin planted at the Agricultural Research and Education Center, Homestead, in 1923; first propagated in 1946); pear-shaped; of medium size, 10 to 20 oz (280-560 g); flesh low in oil (2-5%). Season begins in July in Florida; Jan. in Queensland. Heavy bearer in Florida.

Russell (originated in Islamorada in Florida Keys); pear-shaped at apex with long neck giving it a total length up to 13 in (32.5 cm); skin, smooth, glossy, thin, leathery; flesh of excellent quality; seed small. Season: Aug. and Sept. Tree bears well and is recommended for home gardens.

Simmonds (possibly from a seed of Pollock, first fruited in Miami in 1913; propagated commercially in 1921); oblongoval to pear-shaped; large; skin smooth, light green; flesh of good flavor, 3 to 6% oil; seed of medium size, usually tight. Season: mid-July to mid-Sept. Tree bears more regularly than Pollock but is less vigorous; sometimes sheds many of its fruits; no longer planted commercially in Florida.

Trapp (originated in Miami in 1894; propagated in 1901); round to pear-shaped; medium to large; skin smooth; flesh golden-yellow, green near skin, of excellent quality, 3 to 6% oil; seed large, loose in cavity. Season: medium-late (Sept. to Nov. or Dec.); a good shipper. Was prominent in Florida for 25 years despite tendency to overbloom and bear lightly some years; usually bore regularly and well.

Waldin (seed planted in Florida in 1909; propagated commercially in 1917); oblong to oval; medium to large; skin smooth; flesh pale to greenish-yellow, of good flavor, 5 to 10% oil; seed medium to large, tight. Season: fairly late (mid-Sept. through Oct.). Tree tends to overbear and die back; is hardy. Has been a leading commercial cultivar in central and southern Florida.

There are several Puerto Rican selections—Alzamora, Avila, Faria, Garcia, Hernandez, St. Just—and some cultivars of unknown ancestry: Amador, Galo, Gimenez, Torres, and Trujillo.

Guatemalan varieties Edit

Skin varies from thin to very thick and is granular or gritty). Among prominent early Florida and California cultivars were:

Anaheim (originated in California); oval to elliptical; large; skin glossy, rough, thick; flesh of fair to good flavor, up to 22% oil, but inferior to 'Fuerte', 'Nabal' and 'Benik'; is best in Mar. and Apr. in Israel, July and Aug. in Queensland. Tree slender, erect, tall, cold-sensitive; bears regularly, up to 220 lbs (100 kg) annually in Israel. Considered of poor quality and subject to disease during ripening in Queensland.

Benik (introduced from Guatemala to California in 1917 and from California into Israel in 1934); pear-shaped; medium to large; skin rough, purple, medium-thick; flesh of good quality, 15 to 24% oil; seed nearly round, medium. Season: Apr. to Aug. in Calif.; Jan. to Mar. in Israel; July and Aug. in Queensland. The tree begins to bear late and yields only about 116 lbs (53 kg) per year. Color is not popular on the market. Not grown in Florida.

Dickinson (a California selection, first propagated in 1912); oval to obovate; small to medium; skin dark-purple with large maroon dots, rough, very thick, granular, brittle; flesh of good quality; seed small to medium, tight. Season: June-Oct. in California; Feb. and Mar. in Florida; Jan. and Feb. in Puerto Rico. Tree is a moderate but regular bearer. In Israel 'Dickinson' is described as round, small to large, very thick-skinned with very large seed; of poor quality, not worth growing. It is no longer grown in Florida or California.

Edranol (seedling planted at Vista, California in 1927; propagated in 1932), pear-shaped; of medium size; skin olivegreen, slightly rough, thin leathery; flesh of high quality and nutty flavor, 15 to 18% oil; seed small, tight. Season: Feb. to July at Vista; Apr. to Dec. at Santa Barbara; May and June in Queensland. Disease resistant. Rated as excellent. No longer planted in California but popular in Mexico.

Hazzard (seedling of 'Lyon'planted at Vista, California in 1928) pear-shaped; of medium size; skin rough, fairly thin; flesh of good quality, 15 to 34% oil; seed small. Season: Apr. to July in California, July and Aug. in Queensland where it is rated as excellent and free of external and internal diseases and discolorations in storage. The tree grows slowly, reaches only 12 to 15 ft (3.5-4.5 m), begins bearing early and is a dependable producer. Some fruits may crack if left on tree too long. More than 100 trees can be planted per acre (240 per ha).

Itzamna (budwood brought from Guatemala to Florida in 1916); oblong pear-shaped; medium large; skin rough; flesh yellow, 11% oil; seed small, tight. Season: very late (Mar. to May). May not bear well; little planted in Florida; a commercial cultivar in California and in Puerto Rico where it is a consistently heavy bearer.

Linda (budwood introduced into California from Guatemale in 1914; propagated in Florida in 1917); elliptical; very large; skin rough, dull-purple when ripe; flesh yellow, 10 to 14% oil; seed small, tight. Season: May to Oct. in California; late (Dec. to Feb.) in Florida. A good shipper but not popular in Florida because of size and color. Of some commercial importance in California. Tree low, spreading, vigorous and bears regularly.

Lyon (originated in California; propagated in 1911); broad-pear-shaped; beyond medium to large; skin somewhat rough to rough; bright-green with many small yellowish or red-brown dots; medium-thick, granular and brittle; flesh greenish near skin, of high quality; seed medium-small to medium, tight. Season: Apr. to Aug. in California. Tree comes into bearing early and bears heavily, so much so as to weaken the tree. Grown in Florida only from 1918 to 1922.

Macarthur (originated in 1922 at Monrovia, California); pear-shaped; large; skin thin, pliable; flesh has sweet, nutty but watery flavor, contains 13 to 16.7% oil; seed medium to large. Season: Aug. to Nov. in California; Aug. and Sept. in Queensland where it is rated as of poor quality. It is one of the 6 leading commercial cultivars in California, where it is very cold-hardy.

Nabal (budwood brought from Guatemala in 1917; propagated in California since 1927, in Florida from 1937; in Israel since 1934); nearly round; medium to large; skin nearly smooth, thick, granular; flesh of high quality, green near skin; 10 to 15% oil in Florida, 18 to 22% in Queensland; seed small, tight. Season: June to Sept. in California; Jan. and Feb. in Florida; Oct. and Nov. in Queensland. Tree bears well in central Florida; bears late and poorly in Israel averaging 68 lbs (31 kg) per year in alternate years. In Queensland, bears in alternate years very heavily, but is rated as of medium quality and disease-prone during prolonged ripening.

Nimlioh (USDA budwood brought from Guatemala in 1917; propagated commercially in 1921); elliptical; large; skin slightly rough; flesh thick; seed fairly small, tight. Season: late (Jan. and Feb.) in Florida; May to Aug. in California. Tree bears moderate crops on south coast of Puerto Rico. Abandoned in Florida in 1925 because tree found to be weak and not prolific.

Panchoy (a USDA introduction into Florida from Guatemala; fruited in 1919); pear-shaped to almost elliptical; medium to large; skin rough, very thick; seed of medium size, tight. Season: very late (Mar. to early Apr.) in Florida; Apr. to Aug. in California. Formerly a heavy bearer in Florida and still is on the south coast of Puerto Rico but subject to die-back. Has been commercially important in California and Hawaii.

Pinkerton (seedling, probably of 'Rincon', found on Pinkerton ranch in Ventura Co., California, in 1970; patented); early crop roundish; later, pear shaped with neck; of medium size, 8 to 14 oz (227-397 g); skin medium-leathery, pliable; flesh thick, up to 10% more than in 'Hass' or 'Fuerte'; smooth textured, of good flavor, high in oil, rated as of good quality but inferior to 'Hass' and 'Fuerte'; tends to darken in the latter part of the season; seed small, separates readily from the flesh with the coat adhering to the seed. Season: first crop, Oct. or Nov., 2nd crop, Dec. or Jan. Fruit ships well and has good shelf life, but the neck is a disadvantage on the fresh fruit market; accordingly, the late-season fruits are sent to processing plants. The tree is of low, spreading habit; bears early and heavily; is as cold-sensitive as 'Hass'. About 1200 acres (486 ha) in California in 1984.

Reed (originated about 1948 on Reed property in Carlsbad, California, as a seedling, possibly of a 'Anaheim' X 'Nabal' hybrid; patented in 1960; patent now expired); round; medium to large, 8 to 18 oz (227-510 g); skin slightly rough, medium-thick, pliable; flesh cream-colored with rich, faintly nutty flavor; doesn't darken when cut; rated as excellent quality; seed small to medium, tight; coat adheres to seed. Season:July to Oct. in California; late Feb. to Apr. in New Zealand where it is one of the most promising cultivars. Tree erect, can be spaced 15 x 15 ft (4.6x4.6 m); bears early and regularly; about as cold-sensitive as 'Hass'. In 1984, about 1,000 acres (405 ha) in California.

Schmidt (budwood introduced into California in 1911; propagated in Florida in 1922); pear-shaped; medium to large; skin rough; flesh pale-yellow, 12 to 16% oil; seed of medium size, tight. Season: very late (Feb. and Mar.). The tree is a poor bearer and cold-sensitive and the fruit of poor keeping quality.

Sharpless (originated in California; propagated in 1913); slender-pear-shaped, sometimes with long neck; large to very large; skin slightly rough, greenish-purple to dark-purple with many yellowish dots, thick, granular; flesh of superior quality and flavor; seed small, tight. Very late (Oct. to Feb.) in California.

Solano (originated in California; propagated in 1912); obovate to oval; beyond medium to large; skin nearly smooth, bright-green with many yellowish dots, medium-thick, granular; flesh greenish near skin, of fair quality; seed small, tight. Season: Mar. to May in California; Oct. to mid Nov. or Dec. in Florida. A good bearer, but not grown in Florida for many years.

Spinks (originated in California; propagated in 1915); broad-obovate; very large; skin rough, dark-purple, thick, granular, brittle; flesh of very good quality and flavor; seed small, tight. Season: Aug. to Apr. in California. Formerly grown in central Florida.

Taft (originated in 1899 in California; propagated in 1912); broad pear-shaped; medium to very large; skin faintly rough, more so at base; many yellowish dots, thick, granular but somewhat pliable; flesh of excellent quality and flavor; seed of medium size, tight. Season: May to Dec. in California; Feb. and Mar. in Florida. Poor bearer in California; fair in Florida but cold-sensitive.

Taylor (seed of 'Royal' planted in Florida in 1908, propagated commercially in 1914); obovate to pear-shaped, occasionally with neck; small to medium size—12 to 18 oz (340510 g); skin rough, with many small yellow dots; fairly thin; flesh of excellent quality and flavor, 12 to 17% oil; seed of medium size, tight. Season: late (Dec. and Jan. or even to end of Mar.). The tree is cold-hardy but excessively tall and slender.

Tonnage (seed of 'Taylor' planted in Florida in 1916; propagated commercially in 1930); pear-shaped, medium large; skin dark green, rough, thick; flesh green near skin, rich in flavor, 8 to 15% oil; seed medium, fairly tight. Season: from mid-Oct. through Nov. in Florida; May to mid-Aug. inArgentine. Tree erect, fairly slender, requiring less distance between trees; is a heavy bearer. Cross pollinated by 'Lula' and 'Collieson' in Argentina.

Wagner (seed of 'Royal' planted in California in 1908; propagated in Florida in 1916); rounded to obovate; small to medium; skin slightly rough; flesh light yellow, 16 to 20% oil; seed large, tight. Season: Late (mid-Jan. to mid-Mar.). Tree lower-growing than 'Taylor', a heavy bearer, but fruit more subject to black spot than 'Taylor'. Not recommended in Florida.

Wurtz (originated in 1935 at Encinitas, California; cultivated in Queensland for only the past 12 or 13 years); pear-shaped, small to medium; 8 to 12 oz (226-240 g); seed large. Season: May to Sept. in Calif.; late in Queensland. Tree is small and slow growing, bears moderately but regularly. More than 100 trees may be planted per acre (240 per ha).

Guatemalan-West Indian hybrid varieties Edit

Inasmuch as pure Guatemalan avocados proved not well adapted to Florida, Guatemaian X West Indian hybrids have come to be of utmost importance in the Florida avocado industry, representing more than half of the more than 20 major and minor commercial cultivars grown in this state today. Prominent cultivars past and present include:

Bonita (seed planted in Florida in 1925); obovate, slightly flattened on one side; of medium size; skin slightly rough; flesh contains 8 to 10% oil; seed of medium size. Season: late (Dec. and Jan.). Hardy in California.

Booth 1 (seed planted in Florida in 1920); round-obovate; medium-large; skin almost smooth, medium thick, brittle; flesh pale, 8 to 12% oil; seed large and loose; Season: late (Dec. and Jan.). The tree is a heavy bearer but the fruit is of poor quality and the seed is too big.

Booth 7 (seed planted in Florida in 1920; propagated commercially in 1935); round obovate; of medium size; skin slightly rough, thick, brittle; flesh contains 7 to 14% oil; seed of medium size, tight. Season: late (Dec. to mid-Jan.). The fruit is commercially popular and the tree is a good bearer.

Booth 8 (seed planted in Florida in 1920); oblong-obovate; medium-large; skin slightly rough, fairly thick, brittle; flesh contains 6 to 12% oil; seed medium large, tight. Season: late (Nov. to mid-Dec.). Popular commercially and the tree is a heavy bearer.

Chequette (originated in Miami from seed planted in 1929; propagated in 1939); oval; large; skin glossy, smooth, slightly leathery; flesh of good quality, 13% oil; seed medium, tight. Season: Jan. to Mar. Tree bears heavily in alternate years.

Collinson (seed planted in Florida in 1915); broad-obovoid to elliptical; large; skin smooth; flesh of excellent flavor, 10 to 16% oil; seed of medium size, tight. Season: late (Nov. and Dec.). Tree doesn't produce pollen in Florida; is a heavy bearer in Puerto Rico when interplanted with other cultivars. The flesh is apt to blacken around the seed in cold storage Cold-sensitive and unfruitful in Israel.

Fuchs-20 (a seedling of 'Fuchs' selected in Israel); ellipsoid; medium to large; skin smooth, speckled with yellowish lenticels when ripe; flesh flavor is excellent. Season: medium late (Oct.). Tree is vigorous but a poor bearer; seedlings vary in salt-tolerance but cuttings of resistant selections perform well in saline conditions.

Grande (brought to California in 1911 from Atlixco, Mexico); pear-shaped; large; skin rough, green to purplish; seed of medium size, tight. Season: late (Dec. and Jan. in Fla.; Apr. and May in Calif.). Grown in California and Puerto Rico. Tree is a heavy bearer around Mayaguez.

Hall (originated in Miami; of unknown parentage; fruited in 1937, propagated in 1938); pear-shaped; large: skin smooth, fairly thick; flesh deep-yellow, 12 to 16% oil; seed medium large, tight. Season: Nov. and Dec. Heavy bearer and coldhardy but subject to scab.

Herman (seed planted in Florida in 1935); obovate; skin smooth, fairly thin, flexible; flesh yellow, 10 to 14% oil; seed small. Season: fairly late (mid-Nov. to mid-Jan.). Tree a heavy bearer and hardy.

Hickson (seedling, fruited in Florida in 1932; propagated commercially in 1938); obovate; medium to small; skin slightly rough, thick, brittle; flesh of fair to good quality, 8 to 10% oil; seed small, tight. Season: late (Dec. and Jan.). Tree bears heavily every other year; is cold-sensitive.

Simpson (a sprout of 'Collinson'; fruited in Florida in 1925); obovate-elliptical; rather large; skin slightly rough and thick but not brittle; flesh pale, 10 to 14% oil; seed medium-large, tight. Season: late (mid Nov. and December). The tree is a good bearer.

Winslowson (seed of 'Winslow' planted in Miami in 1911; propagated commercially in 1921); round-oblate; large; skin smooth; flesh pale, 9 to 15% oil; seed of medium size, loose. Season: late (Oct. to Dec. in Fla.; Dec. and Jan. in Puerto Rico). This hybrid is closer to the West Indian race than the Guatemalan and therefore popular in Puerto Rico. Formerly commercial in Florida but abandoned because of loose seed, overblooming, tendency to shed crop, and tree and fruit are susceptible to anthracnose.

In 1963, Puerto Rican horticulturists reported on the performance of 25 selections from 100 studied in the previous 5 years. Four of the selections preceded the establishment of the collection at the Isabela Substation of the University of Puerto Rico. One of the objectives was to identify late maturing varieties with superior quality and yield. Of the leading 10, all are presumed to be Guatemalan X West Indian hybrids except one, 'Kanan No. 1', which is probably Guatemalan, and this and 'Melendez No. 2' are the only ones of alternate bearing habit. 'Gripina' Nos. 2, 5 and 12 were highly rated as, respectively, better than 'Nabal', one of the best commercial cultivars, and most attractive of all. 'Semil' Nos. 23, 31, 34, 42, 43, and 44 seemed equally desirable, with Nos. 34 and 42 noted as wind-resistant.

Puerto Rican breeders have now developed the following Guatemalan X West Indian hybrids: Adjuntas, Guatemala, Melendez 2, Gripina 45, and Semil 34 and 43, as late-maturing (Nov. to Mar.), having medium oil content, rich-yellow flesh, and tight seed in order to be able to stand handling and shipment.

Mexican varieties Edit

Skin thin and tender, clings to the flesh; flesh of high oil content, up to 30%. The foliage has a pronounced anise-like odor; the tree is more cold resistant than those of the other races or hybrids, thriving near Puebla, Mexico, at 500 ft (1,800 m) above sea-level.

Duke (originated in California in 1912); elongated; rather small 5 1\2 to 7 oz (150 200 g); flesh of good quality, 14.5% oil. Season: Sept. to Nov. in Calif.; late July or mid Aug. to mid-Sept. in Israel. Tree is large, symmetrical and wind and cold-resistant, and also highly resistant to root rot, especially when grown from cuttings. It is a poor bearer in some areas of California; has borne 168 lbs (78 kg) annually from the 6th to the 15th year in Israel.

Ganter (originated in 1905 in California; introduced into Israel in 1943); small, about 5½ oz (150 g); of good quality, 18% oil; seed small to medium, usually loose. Season: Oct. to Dec. in Calif.; second half of Sept. in Israel. Tree is small, yields no more than 44 lbs (20 kg) per year. Poor shipper.

Gottfried (seed of a seedling on Key Largo planted at USDA, Miami, in 1906; distributed in 1918); pear shaped; medium size; skin smooth, purple; flesh of excellent quality, 9 to 13% oil; seed medium. Season: Aug. to Oct. Tree prolific in California; a poor bearer in southern Florida and subject to anthracnose, but hardy and desirable for home gardens on west coast of Florida.

Mexicola (originated about 1910 at Pasadena, California; propagated about 1912); very small; skin black; flesh of excellent flavor; seed large. Season: Aug. to Oct. Grown only in home gardens in California. Bears early and regularly; very heat- and cold-resistant; much used as a parent in California breeding programs.

Northrop (seedling from C.P. Taft planted about 1900 near Tustin, California; propagated about 1911); small, 3½ to 5½ oz (100-150 g); skin nearly black; flesh of good quality, 26% oil; seed medium. Season: Oct. and Nov. in California; mid July to mid-Sept. in Florida; mid Sept. to mid Oct. in Israel. Fruit does not keep well; flavor disagreeable when overripe. Tree bears regularly but has lower yield than 'Duke'.

Puebla (considered pure Mexican but some suggest may be a Mexican X Guatemalan hybrid; was found in 1911 at Atlixco near where 'Fuchs' originated). Of medium size; skin smooth, purple; flesh of good flavor; oil content nearly 20%; seed medium to large. Season: Sept. and Oct. in Florida; early to mid-winter in cool regions of California. Tree does not set fruit regularly in California or Israel and therefore is seldom planted now. Has been recommended for home gardens in Central Florida because of hardiness.

Zutano (hybrid, originated in 1926 at Fallbrook, California; registered in 1932); pear shaped; medium-small, skin light green, very thin, leathery; flesh watery, 15 to 22% oil; seed medium. Season: Dec. and Jan. in California; Apr. and May in Queensland where it is considered of poor quality delicate to handle, and prone to disease during ripening. Tree is a good bearer. Ranks among 6 leading commercial cultivars in California, being grown where it is too cold for 'Hass'.

Guatemalan-Mexican hybrid varieties Edit

Bacon Quality of flesh slightly better than 'Zutano'. Season: slightly later then 'Zutano'. Tends to be affected with end spot, an external blemish. This cultivar and 'Zutano' are the only 2 reasonably productive of 60 cultivars tried in Los Angeles and Orange Counties in California. In 1957, top working of all the others to these 2 cold hardy cultivars was strongly recommended. 'Bacon' is a good choice for tropical American highlands about 5,200 ft (160 m).

Fuerte (a natural hybrid originated at Atlixco, Mexico; introduced into California in 1911); pear shaped; small to medium or a little larger; skin slightly rough to rough, with many small yellow dots, thin, not adherent to flesh; flesh green near skin, 12 to 17% oil; seed small, tight. Season Jan. to Aug. in southern California; Dec. to Feb. in Israel; Apr. and May in Queensland, and New South Wales; mid-Aug. to Oct. in New Zealand. Tree is broad, very productive, but tends to bear biennially. Subject to scab and anthracnose in Florida. Formerly very popular in California (61% of all avocados shipped); now second to 'Hass' because of a trend to summer instead of winter production and marketing that began in 1972. It is the leading cultivar in Chile where it bears more dependably than in California. It is a very erratic bearer in Israel. Represents 42% of all Australian plantings. Has long been the leading avocado on the European market.

Hass (seed planted at La Habra Heights, Calif.; registered in 1932); pear shaped to ovoid; of medium size; has a tendency to be undersized except in New Zealand; skin tough, leathery, dark-purple or nearly black when ripe; pebbled; fairly thin; flesh of good flavor, 18 to 22% oil, generally; up to 35% in Queensland; seed small. Season: begins in mid-Mar. in California; Nov. to Jan. in Queensland; mid-Nov. to Mar. in New Zealand; Aug. and Sept. in New South Wales. Formerly accounted for 20% of California avocados shipped; now is the leading cultivar (70% of the crop in 1984). Tree bears better than 'Nabal' in cool areas of California, but grows tall and requires topping. This is the leading cultivar in New Zealand, representing 50% of all commercial plantings; 25% in Queensland. It is second in importance to 'Fuerte' in Chile.

Hayes (a new hybrid in Hawaii, one parent being 'Hass'). Fruit resembles 'Hass' but is larger; skin is glossier, is pebbled, rough, thick and becomes brown-purple. Season: late (mid-Oct. to Dec. in New Zealand). Tree is erect with drooping branches and the fruit is largely sheltered by the foliage.

Lula (seed of 'Taft' planted in Miami in 1915); pear-shaped, sometimes with neck; medium large; skin almost smooth; flesh pale-to greenish-yellow, 12 to 16% oil; seed large, tight. Season: medium-late (mid-Nov. and Dec.). Tree tall, bears early and heavily; cold resistant, successful in central and southern Florida where it was formerly the leading commercial cultivar. It is the principal cultivar in Martinique for exporting to France; represents 95% of the crop.

Rincon (originated at Carpinteria, California); pear-shaped; small to medium; skin fairly thin, smooth, leathery; flesh buttery, contains 15 to 26.5% oil; fibers in flesh near base turn black when fruit is cut; seed of medium size. Season: Mar. and Apr. in Queensland, where it is rated as of poor quality. It is one of the 6 leading cultivars in California. Tree has a low spreading habit.

Ryan (perhaps seedling of 'amigo' found in 1927 at Whittier, California); pear-shaped; of medium size, 8 to 12 oz (226-340 g); skin medium-rough; flesh of fair quality; seed rather large. Season: May to Sept. in California; July to Oct. in Queensland. Tree large and bears regularly but not as heavily as 'Fuerte' or 'Hass' in Queensland. Important in Chile.

Sharwil (originated in Australia); similar to 'Fuerte' in shape but a little more oval; of medium size, skin rather rough, fairly thin; flesh rich in flavor, of high quality, 15 to 26% oil. Season: May and June in New South Wales and Queensland. Tree bears regularly but not heavily. Represents 18 to 20% of all avocados in New South Wales and Queensland. Disease-free during ripening.

Susan (evaluated by California Avocado Society January 2, 1975; patented but patent has now expired); pear-shaped; of medium size, averaging 8 to 10 oz (227-283 g); skin light-green smooth, thin, peels well; flesh pale cream-color, of bland flavor; ripens unevenly with darkening spots; has slight tendency to turn dark when cut; not attractive; of only fair quality; seed large, loose; coat adheres to seed. Season: early fall; short. Tree of medium size; grown commercially only in the San Joaquin Valley because of its cold hardiness.

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