|Under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net|
|Release Date: May 14, 2004 [EBook #12350]|
| Produced by Paul Murray, Sander van Rijnswou and PG Distributed Proofreaders. Produced from images from Feeding America: The Historic American Cookbook Project at Michigan State University (http://digital.lib.msu.edu/cookbooks/index.cfm)
|The International Jewish Cook Book|
|Florence Kreisler Greenbaum|
|Instructor in Cooking and Domestic Science|
|1600 recipes according to the Jewish dietary laws with the rules for kashering|
|The favorite recipes of America, Austria, Germany, Russia, France, Poland, Roumania, etc., etc.|
This is the Bread section of this book Edit
Home-made bread is very much more palatable and more nutritious than baker's bread and it is worth while to spend time and effort in its preparation.
To make good bread, it is necessary to have good flour, fresh yeast and the liquid used in moistening must be neither too hot nor too cold or the bread will not rise properly.
The housekeeper should know about the different kinds of flour. We get the bread flour from the spring wheat; the pastry flour from the winter wheat.
Bread flour contains more gluten than pastry flour and is used for bread on that account. Pastry flour having less gluten and slightly more starch is more suitable for pastry and cake mixtures and is used wherever softness and lightness are desired.
Graham flour is the whole kernel of wheat ground.
Entire wheat flour is the flour resulting from the grinding of all but the outer layer of the wheat.
Rye flour is next best to wheat flour for bread making, but is generally combined with wheal flour, since by itself it makes a sticky bread.
Cornmeal is also combined with wheat flour.
Variety bread is composed of bread flour, rye flour and cornmeal combined in one loaf.
If flour is musty; it is not kosher and must be destroyed. Keep flour either in tins or barrels in a dry atmosphere.
In cities where fresh compressed yeast can be obtained, it is not worth while to prepare one's own.
Compressed yeast is always in proper condition to use until it becomes soft, often the yeast cakes are slightly discolored, but this does not affect the yeast, being caused by the oxidation of the starch in the cake.
Keep yeast in cool place.
Home made yeastEdit
Grate six large raw potatoes, have ready a gallon of water in which you have boiled one and one-half cups of hops. Strain through a fine hair sieve, boiling hot, over the potatoes, stirring well, or the mixture will thicken like starch. Add a scant cup of sugar and one-half cup of salt. When cold, add a yeast cake or a cup of fresh yeast. Let it stand until a thick foam rises on the top. Bottle in a few days. If kept in a cool place, this yeast will last a long time. Use one cup of yeast for one large baking. In making yeast, from time to time, use a cup of the same with which to start the new yeast.
One cup of liquid yeast is equal to one cake of compressed yeast.
When yeast is not obtainable to start the fermentation in making yeast, mix a thin batter of flour and water, and let it stand in a warm place until it is full of bubbles. This ferment has only half the strength of yeast so double the amount must be used.
To make breadEdit
Try the yeast always by setting to raise in a cup of lukewarm water or milk, if you use compressed yeast add salt and sugar.
If it rises in the course of ten or fifteen minutes, the yeast is fit to use. In making bread always use sifted flour. Set a sponge with lukewarm milk or water, keeping it covered in a warm place until very light, then mold this sponge by adding flour, until very light into one large ball, then knead well and steadily for twenty minutes. Set to rise again in a warm place free from drafts, and when it has risen to double its former bulk, take a knife, cut through the dough in several places, then place this dough on a baking board which has been sprinkled with flour. Work with the palm of the hand, always kneading towards the centre of the ball (the dough must rebound like a rubber ball). When this leaves the board and the hands perfectly clean the dough may be formed into loaves or rolls.
Place in pan, greased slightly with a good oil, let rise until the imprint of the finger does not remain, and bake.
The oven for baking bread should be hot enough to brown a teaspoon of flour in five minutes.
If baked in a coal range, the fire must be just the proper heat so as not to have to add fuel or shake the stove.
If baked in a gas range, light oven to full heat five minutes before putting the bread in the oven, and bake in a moderately hot oven forty-five minutes, unless the loaves are very large when one hour will be the proper time.
When taken from the oven, the bread may be wrapped in a clean towel wrung out of warm water (this prevents the crust from becoming hard); place bread in slanting position or allow it to cool on a wire rack.
Set the dough at night and bake early in the morning; take one-half cake of compressed yeast, set in a cup of lukewarm milk or water adding a teaspoon of salt and a tablespoon of sugar. Let this rise, if it does not, the yeast is not fresh or good. Measure eight cups of sifted flour into a deep bread bowl, add one teaspoon of salt; make a depression in the centre, pour in the risen yeast and one cup of lukewarm milk or water. In winter be sure that the bowl, flour, milk, in fact everything has been thoroughly warmed before mixing. Mix the dough slowly with a wooden spoon and then knead as directed.
This amount will make two loaves, either twisted or in small bread pans.
Bake forty-five minutes in a moderate oven.
If the bread is set in the morning use a cake of compressed yeast and bake the loaves in the afternoon.
Make dough according to the above recipe. Work small pieces of dough into strands a finger long, and take three strands for each loaf. Make small as possible, brush with beaten egg; or sweetened water and sprinkle with poppy seed (mohn). Allow them to rise before setting them in the oven. These are called "Vienna loaves" and are used at weddings, parties and for the Succoth festival in the Succah.
If one-half cake of yeast has been used, the half cake of yeast which is left over, can be kept in good condition several days by rewrapping it in the tinfoil and keeping it in a cool, dry place.
Dissolve one cake of compressed yeast in one-half cup of lukewarm milk, add a teaspoon of salt, and a tablespoon of sugar and let it rise. Then make a soft dough of eight cups of sifted flour and as much milk as is required to work it, about two cups; add the yeast, one-half cup of sugar, four tablespoons of butter dissolved in the warm milk, the grated peel of a lemon, two or three dozen raisins seeded, and two eggs well beaten. Work this dough perfectly smooth with the palm of your hand, adding more flour if necessary. It is hardly possible to tell the exact amount of flour to use; experience will teach you when you have added enough. Different brands of flour vary, some being drier than others. Work the dough as directed, set it aside covered until it is double the bulk of the original piece of dough. Then work again and divide the dough into two parts, and divide each of the pieces of dough into three parts. Work the six pieces of dough thoroughly and then roll each piece into a long strand; three of which are to be longer than the other three. Braid the three long strands into one braid (should be thicker in the centre than at the end), and braid the shorter strands into one braid and lay it on, top of the long braid, pressing the ends together. Butter a long baking-pan, lift the barches into the pan and set in a warm place to rise again for about one-half hour. Then brush the top with beaten egg and sprinkle poppy seed all over the top. Bake in a moderate oven one hour.
These are to be used for a meat meal and are made in the same manner as butter barches, omitting the milk and butter; use water and a little shortening of dripping or rendered fat or a vegetable oil; grate a dozen almonds (blanched) and add with two well-beaten eggs, one-half cup of sugar, salt, raisins and the grated peel of one lemon. Work just as you would butter barches. Bake one hour in moderate oven. Wrap in a damp, clean towel as soon as baked to prevent the crust from becoming too hard.
Add one medium-sized mashed boiled potato to any of the foregoing recipes. This will give a more moist bread, which retains its freshness longer.
Dissolve one cake of compressed yeast and four tablespoons of light brown sugar or molasses in one cup of lukewarm water and one cup of milk which has been scalded and cooled to lukewarm. Add two tablespoons of melted butter, then four cups of Graham flour and one cup of white flour (sifted), adding flour gradually, and one teaspoon of salt. Knead thoroughly, being sure to keep dough soft. Cover and set aside in a warm place to rise for about two hours. When double in bulk, turn out on kneading board, mold into loaves, and place in well-greased pans, cover and set to rise again—about one hour or until light. Bake one hour, in a slower oven than for white bread. If wanted for overnight use one-half cake of yeast and an extra half teaspoon of salt.
Dissolve one cake of compressed yeast and one tablespoon of sugar in one cup of milk, scalded and cooled, and one cup of lukewarm water; add one level tablespoon of butter then three cups of gluten flour gradually, and one teaspoon of salt. Knead thoroughly until smooth and elastic; place in well-greased bowl; cover and set aside in a warm place, free from draught, to rise until light, which should be in about two hours. Mold into loaves; place in greased pans, filling them half full. Cover, let rise again, and when double in bulk, which should be in about one hour, bake in moderate oven forty-five minutes.
This will make two one-pound loaves. For diet use omit shortening and sugar.
Make dough as directed for Butterbarches, using one-quarter cup of raisins and omitting the lemon and egg. Form in loaves, fill well-greased pans half full; cover and let rise until light; about one hour. Glaze with egg diluted with water, and bake forty-five minutes.
Rolled oats breadEdit
Pour two cups of boiling water over two cups of rolled oats, cover and let stand until lukewarm. Dissolve one cake of compressed yeast and one-fourth cup of brown sugar in one-half cup of lukewarm water, add two tablespoons of shortening, the oatmeal and the water in which it has been swelling. Beat well, add about three cups of flour to make a dough, also add one teaspoon of salt. Let rise until it doubles in bulk. Mold into two loaves in pan and bake forty-five minutes.
Cook one quart of potatoes diced, in boiling water until tender. Strain, reserving potato water. Measure and add enough more water to make three cups. Let come to a boil, add one-quarter cup of salt, and very gradually one and one-quarter cups of cornmeal. Cook two minutes, stirring constantly until thick. Remove from fire, add two tablespoons of any kind of fat, the potatoes riced or mashed and when cooled two cups of flour; then one tablespoon of sugar and one cake of yeast dissolved in one cup of lukewarm water. Mix and knead to a stiff dough adding wheat flour to keep it from sticking. Cover, set aside in a warm place overnight, or until double its bulk. Shape into four loaves, let rise again; bake in a moderate oven one hour or more, until well done. Glaze with egg diluted with water before putting in the oven. These loaves will keep moist one week.
Rye bread (American) No. 1Edit
Dissolve one cake compressed yeast in two cups of lukewarm water and one cup of milk which has been scalded and cooled; or if so desired the milk may be omitted and all water used; add two and one-half cups of rye flour or enough to make a sponge. Beat well; cover and set aside in a warm place, free from draught, to rise about two hours. When light add one and one-half cups of sifted white flour, one tablespoon of melted butter or oil, two and one-half cups of rye flour to make a soft dough and last one tablespoon of salt. Turn on a board and knead or pound it five minutes. Place in greased bowl; cover and let rise until double in bulk—about two hours. Turn on board and shape into loaves; place in floured shallow pans; cover and let rise again until light—about one hour. Brush with white of egg and water, to glaze. With sharp knife cut lightly three strokes diagonally across top, and place in oven. Bake in slower oven than for white bread. Caraway seeds may be used if desired.
By adding one-half cup of sour dough, left from previous baking, an acid flavor is obtained, which is considered by many a great improvement. This should be added to the sponge.
Rye bread, No. 2Edit
Sift three cups of rye flour, three cups of wheat flour and two teaspoons of salt in a bowl. Dissolve one-half cake of compressed yeast or any other yeast in two cups of lukewarm water. When the yeast is dissolved pour it into the flour and make into a dough. Lay it on a kneading board, and knead until smooth and elastic, put it back into the bowl, cover with a towel, and set aside overnight to rise. Next morning, lay the dough on a biscuit or kneading board again and knead well. Make into a loaf, put into a pan, and when well risen, moisten the top with a little cold water and bake in a moderate oven.
Take a piece of rye bread dough. After it has risen sufficiently roll out quite thin, butter a long cake pan and put in the rolled dough. Brush with melted butter; chop some onions very fine, strew thickly on top of cake, sprinkle with salt, put flakes of butter here and there. Another way is to chop up parsley and use in place of onions. Then called "Petersilien Platz."
Dissolve one cake of compressed yeast in two cups of lukewarm water or milk, add two teaspoons of salt, three cups of bread or wheat flour, one cup of cornmeal, one cup of rye flour and one-half cup of dark molasses, and mix very thoroughly. Let rise, shape into loaves, let rise again and bake in a moderate oven for forty-five minutes.
Take bread dough, when ready to shape into loaves and make a long even roll. Cut into small even pieces, and shape with thumb and fingers into round balls. Set close together in a shallow pan, let rise until double the bulk, and bake in a hot oven from ten to twenty minutes. If crusty rolls are desired, set apart in a shallow pan, bake well, and cool in draft.
Scald one cup of milk and when lukewarm dissolve one cake of compressed yeast and add one and one-half cups of flour. Beat thoroughly, cover and allow to stand until light. Add one-quarter cup of sugar, one and one-half teaspoons of salt, two eggs, one-third cup of butter and enough flour to knead. Allow to rise again until light. Shape into round or small oblong finger rolls, and place in buttered pans close together, when light bake in hot oven.
Take bread or kitchen dough, and when well risen, toss on floured baking board, roll into a square sheet, one-quarter inch thick. Spread with melted butter, and cut into six-inch squares, then cut each square into two equal parts through opposite corners, thus forming two triangles. Roll over and over from the longest side to the opposite corner and then shape the rolls into half moons or crescents. Place in floured or greased pans, rather far apart; brush with beaten yolk to which a little cold water has been added and sprinkle tops of crescents or horns with poppy seed. Set in warm place to and, when double its bulk, bake in hot oven until brown and crusty.
Make same as tea rolls. When well risen mold into small round buns; place in well-greased pans, one inch apart. Coyer set aside to rise until light—about one hour. Brush with egg diluted with water; bake twenty minutes, just before removing from the oven, brush with sugar moistened with a little water.
Raisin or currant bunsEdit
Boil two large potatoes and strain the water into a pitcher, dissolve two-thirds cake of yeast in a cup. Put potatoes in a pan with a cup of sugar; large lump of butter, and teaspoon of salt. The heat of potatoes will melt the sugar and butter. Mash with large masher to a cream; pour in rest of potato water, add pint of flour and mix together. Then cover and set in a warm place all night. In the morning add more flour, mix quickly and put currants or raisins in as you turn the dough. This will keep them from settling in the bottom of the bread. Put in hot pans and bake in a hot oven. This makes a delicious holiday bread. Eat with butter, hot or cold.
Take pieces of raised bread dough, roll three-eighths inch thick and four or five inches long. Place in floured pan, far apart, brush tops with beaten yolk and poppy seed. Let rise, bake in a hot oven until brown.
Prepare the yeast as for bread and work just the same; add one-quarter cup of butter, one-quarter cup of sugar, one whole egg and one egg yolk beaten very light, flavor with mace or a few gratings of lemon peel; work until it leaves the hand perfectly clean, then form into rolls, let raise, brush with beaten egg, place rolls in pan close together and bake.
Slice even slices of baker's bread, not too thin, put in biscuit pan on the top rack of a very hot oven, brown nicely on one side, then turn and brown on the other, spread with butter, and a little powdered sugar, if desired, and serve at once. Or put the slices on a long fork, hold before a red coal fire, without flame, toast on both sides and proceed as above.
Milk or cream toastEdit
Toast as many slices of stale light bread as desired a light brown. Heat milk or cream, allowing one-half cup for each slice, add small lump of butter. When just at the boiling point, pour over bread which has been placed in dish, sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon, cover, and serve immediately. Nice for invalids.
Cinnamon toast for teaEdit
Bread cut thin and browned, but not dried.
Butter the toast while very hot, thinly and evenly, and sprinkle over each piece some powdered cinnamon and sugar.
Arme ritter Edit
Beat two eggs slightly, add one-half teaspoon of salt and two-thirds cup of milk; dip six slices of stale bread in the mixture. Have a griddle hot and well buttered; brown the bread on each side. Serve hot with cinnamon and sugar or a sauce.