The 1989 Publication Oglivie's Encyclopedia of Useful Information gives a (far from scientific) chronology of the time taken to digest various foods:

Food Rate
rice 1 hour
milk (raw) 1¼ hours
apples 1½ hours
eggs (raw) 1½ hours
milk (boiled) 2 hours
eggs (boiled) 3 hours
beef (roast) 3 hours
bread (fresh) 3¼ hours
carrots (boiled) 3¼ hours
butter 3½ hours
cheese 3½ hours
turnips (boiled) 3½ hours
fowls (roast) 4 hours
cabbage 4½ hours
veal (roast) 5½ hours

Source: Schott's Food And Drink Miscellany

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